Diabetes Mellitus Sample

Posted on February 13, 2024

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a substantial health problem, affecting various communities and age groups globally. It is a chronic metabolic disorder attributed to advanced levels of blood sugar. This condition is instigated by poor insulin generation by the pancreas or ineffectual insulin use by the body. Numerous diabetes forms exist, but Type 1 and Type 2 are the most dominant. This report explores diabetes mellitus, which affects multiple individuals’ lives globally. It also discusses demographics, symptoms, and treatment options for the condition. The surging pervasiveness of diabetes mellitus stresses the requirement for improved healthcare practices, as effective control and prevention of the disease are vital in lessening its widespread impact on global health.


Insulin shortage and ineffective use of insulin by the body contribute to diabetes mellitus. Two key types of diabetes mellitus are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The immune system shatters the insulin-creating cells, accelerating insulin inadequacy in Type 1 diabetes. This diabetes type is detected in childhood and obliges lifelong insulin remedies for blood sugar control. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, advances in adulthood and is allied to lifestyle facets like the lack of exercise and poor diet, but it can also impact kids and youths. Its management entails lifestyle changes, insulin therapy, and medications. Diabetes mellitus raises the threat of various illnesses, including kidney failure, stroke, vision issues, and loss of sensation. Its risk factors include age, inactive lifestyle, obesity, and family history.

Multiple people internationally are grappling with diabetes, with growing numbers in recent years. According to Mobasseri et al. (2019), Type 1 diabetes makes up about 5 to 15 per cent of people with diabetes and involves kids. Besides, 1 in every eight adults, around 783 million, will be having diabetes (Facts & figures, 2023). More than 90 per cent of individuals living with diabetes have Type 2, which is influenced by demographic, genetic, and environmental aspects. Therefore, this prevalence stresses the urgent need for intensive healthcare initiatives and management strategies to curb the effect of diabetes on people and healthcare systems globally.

Current Medical/Surgical Treatment Options

Table 1

Medical/Surgical Treatment Options for Diabetes Mellitus.

Clinical Condition

Treatment Options

Lifespan Considerations

Diabetes Mellitus

Medications: numerous oral medicines are used to manage diabetes by controlling blood sugar levels. Such drugs include DPP-4 inhibitors, meglitinides, and SGLT-3 inhibitors (Goh et al., 2022). Besides, insulin and other medications like GLP-1 receptor agonists can be prescribed, particularly for people who cannot attain glycemic control with oral drugs alone.

Insulin Therapy: this therapy is a crucial aspect of diabetes management. Insulin regulates blood sugar levels by enabling body cells to absorb glucose from the blood. Insulin therapy is administered through several methods. It can be administered under the skin via an insulin pump or a syringe. The choice of insulin therapy depends on lifestyle, specific needs, and eating habits.

Bariatric Surgery: this is a practical approach for managing Type 2 diabetes, especially in obese people (Chumakova-Orin et al., 2021). The effects of this type of surgery on diabetes extend beyond weight loss since the procedure promotes glycemic control. For instance, gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy facilitate remission of Type 2 diabetes. This surgery can also reduce insulin resistance, making the body’s insulin more successful in managing blood sugar levels.

Over-the-counter Medications: although over-the-counter medications are not the primary treatment options for diabetes, people use products like dietary supplements, pain relievers, and glucose monitoring supplies.

Diabetes requires lifetime management, and lifespan considerations involve numerous aspects to promote individuals’ quality of life and well-being. Timely diagnosis is vital in mitigating complications since it facilitates the implementation of practical management approaches. Also, consistent monitoring of blood sugar levels helps maintain optimal control and curb complications. Likewise, a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, weight management, and physical activity, is essential in glycemic control. Continuous education regarding diabetes management allows individuals to make better decisions about their health. Understanding diabetes, lifestyle options, and treatment choices stimulates lasting well-being. Since diabetes control is difficult and people may experience unease and depression, mental health is a vital part of their welfare. Thus, healthcare specialists, family members, and friends should support the affected individual.


Case Presentation


Diabetes surpasses demographic borders, affecting people of all cultures, ages, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Type 2 diabetes is related to lifestyle elements like physical inactivity and obesity and is more widespread than Type 1. Diabetes mellitus affects 8.5 per cent of adults, accounting for about 483 million people internationally (Engler et al., 2020). Some populations, like Asians and Hispanic Americans, exhibit higher diabetes rates, demonstrating a genetic predisposition.

Presenting Symptoms

Distinct symptoms mark the inception of diabetes, notifying individuals and healthcare workers of the likelihood of the condition—people with diabetes experience recurrent urination (Dwivedi & Pandey, 2020). The problem occurs because kidneys work to eradicate excess glucose from the bloodstream. Besides, excessive thirst is a prevalent symptom of diabetes as the body strives to compensate for fluid loss through recurrent urination. Also, weight loss is an indication of diabetes as the body breaks down fat muscles for energy due to insufficient insulin action. In addition, the body’s incapacity to efficiently use glucose leads to an energy deficit, causing persistent weakness and fatigue among individuals. Lastly, blurred vision occurs since high blood glucose levels affect the nature of the eye lens, impacting the ability to focus.

History and Physical Examination (H&P)

An in-depth medical history is vital in diabetes diagnosis. This may include a family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors, and a person’s cardiovascular disease history. Physical evaluation entails measuring blood pressure and examining the skin for symptoms of insulin resistance.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting plasma glucose tests, and hemoglobin A1c tests diagnose diabetes as outlined by Khan et al. (2019). Controlling the condition necessitates lifestyle alterations, like exercising, weight control, and observing a healthy diet. Medications and insulin therapy are also used for treatment.

Complications and Outcomes

 Retinopathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular, and peripheral arterial diseases are significant complications associated with diabetes. Besides, skin complications, increased infection rates, and dental issues are observed. Regular monitoring and effective management lead to positive outcomes, while poor management leads to adverse effects, such as organ damage, amputations, and death.

Implications for the Registered Nurse

In nursing, incorporating a comprehensive knowledge of diabetes mellitus is crucial in delivering quality care and support. Extensive knowledge about people with diabetes helps me promote the health and safety of people with diabetes by facilitating appropriate measures to control the disease. Similarly, I explore the probable signs and symptoms of diabetes. By identifying specific indications, such as frequent urination, weight loss, and increased thirst, I can diagnose this disorder at early stages, facilitating immediate intervention. Thus, my comprehensive understanding of the likely complications linked to diabetes is crucial since it prepares me to offer a holistic treatment that meets the broader health complications.

Also, I can integrate diabetes knowledge to promote activities like patient advocacy, education, and awareness. For instance, I can empower people with information related to lifestyle modifications, fostering the relevance of regular exercise and a balanced diet. By offering a proactive strategy for health, I can reduce diabetes and related health complications among people. The knowledge related to management and treatment is vital in my day-to-day duties as a nurse. My familiarity with several medications and monitoring protocols enables me to deliver proactive patient care and treatment. Likewise, I can integrate diabetes knowledge into my practice to interpret blood pressure and sugar levels, allowing me to make informed decisions and adjust cure plans where necessary. Therefore, learning about diabetes helps me ensure a coordinated approach to individual care and address patients’ general well-being.

On the other hand, some initiatives are considered for promoting health and diabetes prevention, including school health programs, education and awareness programs, peer education and support groups, and workplace wellness programs.

School health programs

Incorporating health education in the educational curriculum can be a better tactic for preventing diabetes and promoting health. The curriculum will promote healthy lifestyles, focusing on the relevance of physical exercise and a healthy diet. This emphasis can help control diabetes among individuals in early and future life.

Community education and awareness programs

Developing community-based education and consciousness campaigns to create awareness about diabetes diseases is relevant to promoting health and disease prevention. Effective awareness campaigns for diabetes can be achieved through uniting advocacy groups, health organizations, and clinicians (Ross & Altimus, 2021). The awareness may delve into the causes, symptoms, and control measures for diabetes. Also, people can be aware of the vigorous lifestyles and plan for better ways to acquire robust health. Thus, community education programs enlighten individuals about the causes and interventions of diabetes, promoting fitness.

Peer education and support groups

Providing comprehensive sustenance to individuals at risk of diabetes through support groups enhances a sense of community and can promote health and prevent the disease. Also, peer education can be integrated through emotional support and sharing experiences in these groups, empowering people. This collective strategy strengthens positive health behaviors, fostering resilience. Ultimately, it promotes effective diabetes treatment and management through sharing insights.

Workplace wellness programs

This approach targets employees’ health by incorporating fitness challenges, wellness resources, and healthy eating promotions, leading to health promotion and disease prevention. These initiatives aim to inspire healthier staff behavior, enhancing supportive surroundings that promote overall welfare. Participation in workplace wellness programs increases employee adoption of positive health behaviors (Song & Baicker, 2019). Therefore, wellness programs promote the prevention of diabetes and related complications through lifestyle enhancements.


Diabetes mellitus is a noteworthy universal health concern, impacting countless communities and age groups, and is characterized by elevated blood sugar levels. It is triggered by insulin deficit and ineffectual use of insulin by the body and affects individuals of all cultures and socioeconomic settings. Bariatric surgery, over-the-counter prescriptions, and insulin therapy treat the condition. The condition’s symptoms include repeated urination, thirst, and blurry vision. Some tests, including oral glucose tolerance tests and hemoglobin A1c tests diagnose diabetes. School health plans, awareness campaigns, employee wellness programs, and peer education and support groups can be employed to enhance health and inhibit diabetes.


Chumakova-Orin, M., Vanetta, C., Moris, D. P., & Guerron, A. D. (2021). Diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. World Journal of Diabetes, 12(7), 1093-1101. https://doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v12.i7.1093

Dwivedi, M., & Pandey, A. R. (2020). Diabetes mellitus and its treatment: an overview. J Adv Pharmacol, 1(1), 48-58.

Engler, C., Leo, M., Pfeifer, B., Juchum, M., Chen-Koenig, D., Poelzl, K., Schoenherr, H., Vill, D., Oberdanner, J., Eisendle, E., Middeldorf, K., Heindl, B., Gaenzer, H., Bode, G., Kirchmeyr, K., Ladner, G., Rieger, L., Koellensperger, U., Schwaiger, A., … Ebenbichler, C. (2020). Long-term trends in the prescription of antidiabetic drugs: Real-world evidence from the diabetes registry Tyrol 2012–2018. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 8(1), e001279. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001279

Facts & figures. (2023, August 24). International Diabetes Federation. https://idf.org/about-diabetes/diabetes-facts-figures/

Goh, L. G., Sun, J., Ong, B. S., Khoo, D., Sum, C. F., & Ng, K. (2022). Real-world evaluation of sodium-glucose Co-transporter-2 inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective multi-ethnic cohort study. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 21(1), 521-555. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-022-01004-4 

Khan, R. M. M., Chua, Z. J. Y., Tan, J. C., Yang, Y., Liao, Z., & Zhao, Y. (2019). From pre-diabetes to diabetes: diagnosis, treatments and translational research. Medicina, 55(9), 546.

Mobasseri, M., Shirmohammadi, M., Amiri, T., Vahed, N., Hosseini Fard, H., & Ghojazadeh, M. (2020). Prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Promotion Perspectives, 10(2), 98-115. https://doi.org/10.34172/hpp.2020.18

Ross, E. R. I. N., & Altimus, C. (2021). Type 1 Diabetes Autoantibody Screening: A Roadmap for Pediatric Policy Implementation. Milken Institute.

Song, Z., & Baicker, K. (2019). Effect of a workplace wellness program on employee health and economic outcomes: a randomized clinical trial. Jama, 321(15), 1491-1501. https://doi.org./10.1001/jama.2019.3307

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