A parasite is an organism that resides in the living tissue of a host organism mainly for food benefit. Thus, a parasite has its long maturity period inside the host and may cause certain diseases but as for others, they have no apparent harm on their host. Many of the parasites have specificity adaptations allowing them to exploit host resources. In most cases of infections, diseases are endemic through a parasitic mode during their physiological and morphological adaptations.
Protozoa are single-celled microscopic organisms that have the similar behavioral functions and complexity of development, existing as free-living or parasitic in nature, which are able to multiply in humans just by single organism infection. Intestinal protozoa are transmitted through an oral or fecal route. For the most part, the protozoa are found where food and water is contaminated by human or animal waste. In its cyst period, a protective cover on the outer membrane allows the protozoa to infect the host through the digestive tract without damage. Thus, develop into a mature organism that is able to nourish and reproduce. Protozoa causes most of the common parasitic diseases, such as Amebic dysentery (Entamoeba Histolytica protozoan). Other types of protozoa that stream inside the blood or tissue of their humans are transmitted through a vector, where an organism transports carries from one host to another, (for an example through a bite wound of a mosquito i.e. malaria). They are considered to cause more death and sufferings to humans than any other type of disease causing -organisms. Amoebiasis infection resides in the gastrointestinal tract affecting a wide human population and therefore, responsible as a major health problem in the world, (Center for diseases and control and prevention, 2011). It can generate to sickness or not depending on the human resistant of the host. Virulence is defined as the extent of damage caused to the host, in other instances Amoebiasis parasites may reside in their host without harm.
Unlike protozoa, the Helminths are usually large wormlike creatures, which cannot multiply in their adult stages. On a similar note, they are parasitic and free-living in nature with smaller body sizes compared with their host for survival adaptations. In addition, many of the parasites are reduced to inferiority through a process known as sacculinization .They include the following ;( nematodes) or roundworms that reside in the blood, gastrointestinal tract and the lymphatic system. Ascaris lumbricoides are the largest of parasitic roundworms which mature to almost fifteen inches long in the small intestines. (Flat worms) include tapeworms and flukes. A tapeworm infects the intestinal tract of its host by attaching itself with suckers on their head. Tapeworms depend on intermediate association with hosts such cattle or pigs. Flukes are transmitted through skin contact with contaminated water. They harbor one host for their development and growth; it’s called a direct life cycle both in their larva and adult stages. While in contrast, if the organisms depends on association of intermediates hosts is known as the indirect life cycles. Ascaris lumbricoides(round worms ) usually have their eggs passed as stool of the infected host and stained brown by bile.
In conclusion, (Ascaris lumbricoides) Nematodes and Entamoeba Histolytica protozoan are endporasties, which survive and develop in their hosts; both parasites cannot survive without a host. Many are considered to have long-life cycle on their hosts.
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