“The Scarlet Letter”: the Significance of the Novel Structure Literary Analysis Sample

Posted on November 9, 2023

Analysis Sample

The Scarlet Letter, written by Nathaniel Hawthorne and first published in 1850, is one of the most captivating novels in American literature. Hawthorne presents a Puritan woman called Hester Prynne who travels alone in New England with great insight into human nature. Hawthorne organized the work with an introduction, setup of growth, and resolution, intricately crafting a tale that tackles the depths of sin, atonement, and hypocrisy under the rigid confines of Puritan society.

I. The Three-Part Structure: A Framework of Evolution

A. Introduction: Setting the Stage

In the opening segment of “The Scarlet Letter,” Nathaniel Hawthorne masterfully sets the stage for the ensuing drama within the Puritan society of seventeenth-century Massachusetts. Even Hawthorne recognizes the novel’s danger of becoming too dark: “It will weary many people, and disgust some” (Hawthorne, 2016, p.227). The first chapter analyzes the novel’s text and characters from multiple internal and exterior narrative emphasis viewpoints to expand the novel’s thickness and make the characters more plump and vividly present to the readers. The scarlet letter “A” adorning Hester Prynne’s chest immediately embodies her transgression and a harbinger of the moral dilemmas that will unfold. The initial section’s deliberate structure lays the groundwork for the subsequent exploration of the character’s inner worlds and societal complexities.

B. Development: Unveiling Complexity

The second chapter examines from the standpoint of narrative space. Hawthorne is a writer who has a keen sense of setting. He uses space to support the development of the narrative and structure of the novel so that readers focus on the depth and breadth of the story’s growth rather than the issue of time. The layers of emotions, motivations, and secrets come to light as the narrative progresses. Such structure cultivates a sense of intimacy with the characters, encouraging readers to delve beyond the surface and engage deeply with their struggles.

C. Culmination: Climax and Resolution

The third chapter examines the text from the perspective of narrative language and the symbolic significance of A. As the storyline progresses, A becomes associated with new connotations correlating to the heroine’s psychological transformations. The structure of “The Scarlet Letter” allows Hawthorne to investigate topics such as sin, shame, redemption, and the intricacies of human relationships. Scaffold scenes, parallel plotlines, and symbolic aspects provide complexity and dimensions to the tale, engaging readers in a thought-provoking investigation of moral quandaries and societal expectations.

II. Character Transformation and Development

A. Hester Prynne: From Shame to Strength

The most outstanding aspect of Hester Prynne is her character power. While Hawthorne does not tell much about her past before the novel begins, he highlights her amazing character, discovered through her public humiliation and subsequent secluded life in Puritan society. Her inner courage, rejection of tradition, honesty, and compassion may have been present in her character, but the scarlet letter brings them to light. Through this transformation, Hawthorne demonstrates the power of resilience and self-acceptance, fostering a connection between readers and Hester’s personal growth. The structural pacing of her transition reinforces the thematic significance of embracing one’s individuality and rising above societal constraints.

B. Arthur Dimmesdale: The Internal Struggle

Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale, the town’s minister and the secret father of Hester’s child, is another crucial figure. The narrator describes Dimmesdale as “suffering under bodily disease, and gnawed and tortured by some black trouble of the soul” (Hawthorne, 2016, p.93). He feels overwhelmed by guilt due to his participation in Hester’s sin as a beloved Puritan minister. His internal pain worsens his health and weakens his spirit. As readers gain insight into Dimmesdale’s guilt-ridden conscience while the other characters remain unaware, they participate in his silent torment. His hypocrisy becomes more evident as he preaches virtue while covering up his wrongdoing. Depending on how one reads the passage, his secret’s final confession either brings him to redemption or ruin.

III. Thematic Depth and Exploration

A. Sin and Redemption

Hawthorne examines how his characters deal with their transgressions and decide whether to seek atonement or give up on their helplessness to change the past. “The Scarlet Letter” is primarily concerned with the issue of wrong, delving into the implications of human weakness and moral failure. The novel explores the protagonists’ struggle to deal with their misdeeds and the consequences of those mistakes on their lives. While “The Scarlet Letter” is about sin, it also has an essential message regarding saving from wrongdoing. The novel proposes that, even in the face of immense hardship, humans may find atonement through confession, self-reflection, and personal growth. Whether Hester wears the scarlet letter as a reminder of her transgression or Dimmesdale fights mental pain, these individuals serve as examples of many paths to atonement.

B. Hypocrisy and Morality

Hawthorne’s exploration of hypocrisy and morality seamlessly integrates into the novel’s structure. The work also explores issues of Puritanism and hypocrisy, showing the paradoxes and faults of the Puritanical worldview. Furthermore, the story exposes the hypocrisy of Puritanical culture and the harsh social conventions that ruled life in colonial America. Hawthorne portrays an image of a society that outwardly condemns vice while acting immorally in secret. A structural approach encourages a nuanced assessment of cultural norms and their implications, urging readers to consider the ethical intricacies and challenge the legitimacy of blind obedience. The framework serves as a prism through which the story reveals the discrepancies between appearances and reality.

Hawthorne carefully crafted a storyline that explores the depths of sin, atonement, and hypocrisy under the strict limitations of Puritan society. The work is arranged with an introduction, development, and ending. The book demonstrates a flawless method for creating conflict and forming the reader’s impressions of the characters via techniques not unique to Hawthorne. The novel ultimately functions as a timeless investigation of the complexity of human nature and the social forces that shape people.


Hawthorne, N. (2016). The Scarlet Letter. Penguin Classics.

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