Academic level – Undergrad. 1-2
Type of paper – Research paper
Topic Title – Depressive disorder
Depressive disorders constitute prevalent mental health problems distinguished by enduring melancholy, lack of interest, and decreased functioning. The diagnostic standards for major depressive disorder (MDD) and persistent depressive disorder (PDD), as well as the differences between them, were evaluated in this study. We aim to examine therapies for MDD and PDD, compare evidence-based methods used in therapy for depressive disorders, and assess well-known TV characters who may be diagnosed with MDD and PDD, giving justifications for each choice.
The prevalence of depressive illnesses and their effects on individuals and society have been underlined in numerous studies. According to the professors from the American Psychiatric Association, as mentioned in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) necessitates the presence of a minimum of five symptoms spanning two weeks (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). These symptoms include reduced energy levels and feelings of depression, diminished interest, notable weight fluctuations, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or inhibition, sensations of guilt or worthlessness, and challenges in concentrating or decision-making. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD), alternatively recognized as dysthymia, characterizes a persistent form of depressive disorder. Scientists define it as a state of depression that persists for at least two years and involves a minimum of two the subsequent symptoms: uncontrollable appetite or excessive eating, sleep issues, lack of vitality or constant tiredness, absence of self-awareness, difficulties in focusing or making choices, and a pervasive sense of hopelessness (Kocsis, 2016). Hence, the tremendous impact of depressive diseases on people is obvious, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association, emphasizing the need for better diagnosis.
This research offers comprehensive insights into the diagnostic criteria, distinctions, and therapy approaches for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). These insights are derived from meticulously examining pertinent scientific materials, encompassing research papers and peer-reviewed journal entries. The combination of rigorous literature analysis and expert viewpoints expands the scope of this investigation. Such a comprehensive approach offers a well-rounded perspective regarding the matter.
The study discovered that MDD and PDD share symptoms such as melancholy and difficulty sleeping. Nonetheless, the length and severity of these two disorders vary significantly. People suffering from MDD may experience brief but strong despair and hopelessness. Contrarily, BDD, or persistent depressive disorder, is a kind of depression that lasts for at least two years. People with this medical condition may have persistent depression symptoms that interfere with their daily activities and lower their overall life pleasure. Recognizing these distinctions is essential in identifying and managing individuals with MDD and those suffering from PDD. By detecting these variances, healthcare providers may give patients with depressive illnesses the proper assistance and therapy to help them achieve better outcomes.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a beneficial strategy for treating depression since it strongly emphasizes setting and achieving specific goals. It addresses the negative behaviors and cognitive patterns that cause depression, and its effectiveness is supported by many research investigations, including those by Cuijpers et al. (2016) and Kocsis (2016). Treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) and persistent depression disorder (PDD) differs significantly. Nevertheless, therapy such as CBT, psychoeducation, and (if necessary) medication improve the outcomes of patients suffering from both diseases. The duration and degree of therapy required for each condition vary, with MDD requiring more quick and severe treatments during acute episodes and PDD requiring long-term care to address its chronic nature. Correct diagnosis of depression is important to adjust treatment and improve treatment outcomes. Differentiating between BDD and PDD can pose challenges due to the similarity of symptoms, potentially resulting in incorrect diagnosis or less than optimal treatment. To obtain an accurate diagnosis, mental health professionals must perform extensive examinations and analyze the kind and duration of symptoms.
Specialists have proven that CBT is effective in treating BDD and GDR. This talking therapy aids people in developing coping mechanisms and more healthy emotional processing techniques by challenging negative thinking patterns and altering maladaptive behaviors. Studies by Cuijpers et al. (2016) and Kocsis (2016) indicate that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help lessen depressive symptoms and enhance general emotions of well-being. The success of CBT depends not only on the particular depressive disorder but also on the patient’s commitment to attending therapy sessions and actively engaging in the treatment procedure. Since CBT is a collaborative and interactive method it calls for active participation from the treated person to recognize and confront harmful thinking patterns and make behavioral changes. The effectiveness of CBT can deviate since it depends on the degree and duration of the depressive state. Individuals with PDD might benefit from longer-term therapy care, even if CBT has shown effectiveness in treating acute bouts of MDD. PDD’s chronic nature necessitates consistent treatment involvement to address ingrained habits and encourage long-lasting behavioral adjustments.
Well-known TV Characters
From the cartoon series “BoJack Horseman,” “BoJack Horseman” is one TV character that possibly has MDD. BoJack copes with depression throughout the series and displays signs of MDD, such as ongoing melancholy, the loss of interest in hobbies, and engaging in harmful conduct. The cartoon character “Eeyore” from “Winnie the Pooh” experiences the PDD diagnosis. Eeyore frequently demonstrates a pessimistic and depressing perspective, suffers from poor self-esteem, and shows signs of chronic unhappiness, all of which are symptoms of PDD.
This research examined the diagnostic standards and distinctions between MDD and PDD. CBT developed as a successful evidence-based strategy for both disorders, underscoring the value of evidence-based approaches in mental health care. The lives of people with depressive disorders can be improved by understanding and using these strategies, highlighting the need for continued research and awareness to improve support and outcomes for persons suffering from MDD and PDD.
Cuijpers, P., Karyotaki, E., Weitz, E., Andersson, G., Hollon, S. D.,; van Straten, A. (2016). The effects of psychotherapies for major depression in adults on remission, recovery and improvement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 159, 118–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.02.026
Kocsis, J. H. (2016). Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy and brief supportive psychotherapy for augmentation of antidepressant nonresponse in chronic depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(11), 1178. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.144
Psychiatric Association, A. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596