Pavlovian conditioning is basic to learning and is obviously a critical factor in the acquisition of phobias. This model assumes that all members of a species share a common set of reflexes, hard-wired responses to certain stimuli. These unconditional reflexes are critical to survival. Pavlovian conditioning, which relies on these reflexes, or the stimulus-response relationship, has been shown to be fundamental to learning such that all animals learn to adapt to their environment based on this concept.
The traditional learning model, based on animal conditioning research, has been extraordinarily useful but unfortunately very limited where phobias are concerned (McNally 284). First of all, one cannot assume that human phobias are the same as fears conditioned in animals in a laboratory, and they are not, as will be discussed later.
Field and Davey also had the following problems with the traditional model (191-192). Phobias, for one, tend to be highly resistant to extinction, more so than other acquired responses. Some phobics have no memory of an aversive conditioning event at the onset of their phobia while others recall an associated traumatic event. …
Students with behavioral disorders exhibit behaviors that teachers and others in their environment find offensive and intolerable. Noncompliance, one of these behaviors, is increasing in frequency of occurrence among children (Walker & Sylwester, 1998). The behavior can be displayed by several topographies. Noncompliance is defined as failure to follow a request or standard/rule. This behavior has been identified as one that leads to other forms of maladaptive behaviors, such as vandalism, stealing, and bullying (Walker & Sylwester, 1998). Noncompliant behavior is destructive to the student’s success academically at school and socially in the school, home, and community environments. It often leads to power struggles and other negative verbal exchanges, sometimes resulting in physically aggressive behavior. These types of coercive interactions destroy relationships. A survey of 1,100 general education and special education teachers identified that child compliance to teacher requests is “the most highly valued form of adaptive student behavior” (Walker, 1986). Compliance to requests and standards/rules is essential for success in the student’s present and future environments. It has a direct impact on relationship, education, and employment. …
Marriage is a social institution recognized by custom and law. It is a relation that exists between one or more men to one or more women. Custom or law gives recognitions of the duties and rights of the parties involved in such an institution. The union may result to children being born in it. In general, the societal expectation is one where there is sexual gratification between a husband and wife. There are legal issues that may arise as a result of adultery, which may force one partner to dissolve the marriage. This relation is at some point regarded as an economic institution in which a husband is fully responsible for the needs of the wife and children. With the current women empowerment in the society they are also able to provide for their families. A father has a general control and power over his family but for the children his powers are for a limited time. This comes as a result of the need for children to practice decision making and show responsibility especially at adulthood….
Most educators, parents and community members want their schools to be good ones, so school improvement is a major function of educational administration. It is necessarily an ongoing activity because past successes are no guarantee of future ones.
School administrators typically care about students and want to help them. But caring, although important and desirable, is by itself not enough. The basic problem is how to keep a school moving in direction that will actually benefit the students. Improvement has desired two main elements: the choice of desired directions and aims, and strategies for attaining them. The selection of directions can be made in a number of ways, including and considering photo philosophical values, exploring educational goals and objectives. The direction finally chosen will depend on its relevance in terms of desired ends. Furthermore, it should also be based on its feasibility as determined by the examination and analysis of the implemented strategies….
The property in Dubai has made it a commercial downtown and Dubai has emerged itself as the Shangri-La of real-estate deals. From its patronage of sand dunes and tranquil beaches, it has congealed into a global property portal. The property here has become a fountainhead of capitalist investments.
The cardinal attraction of the property in Dubai is its low prices that are one-third per square meter as compared to the property in the US. Apart from it, one can economize through the tax-free income in Dubai against the vast revenues in the US.
The rent prices have inflated to a minimum of 10% to a maximum to 50% in past two years. This progression in rates is drawing in the investors into property and to combat this hike, people are shifting to permanent property from lease. …
The marriage is considered to be the combination of two lives for passing the Life span with mutual interest. According to an other saying Husband and the wife are considered the wheels of vehicle if any one of them faces problems; the other will likely suffer the same.
There are two types of marriages prevalent in the world. The First one is Love marriage and the other one is arranged marriage. In western countries mostly the love marriages are preferred over the arranged marriages because they have open society norms. But in Eastern Countries mostly the marriages are arranged by the parents of the boys and girls. The nature and problems of the marriages vary from the type of society….
Crime, as the violation of law, challenges the very foundations of the social order, thereby making its control and punishment one of the most vital functions of the modern state. One of the key elements of establishing criminal responsibility for an offence is the “exercise of the person’s will” towards the commission of the offence. As is evident from this, any intervening conditions which hamper or otherwise affect the “exercise of will” – such as mental illness – are bound to have a bearing on the outcome of the prosecution.
The problem currently under scrutiny outlines a scenario where a woman, driven by mental disturbances following parturition, repeatedly smothers her baby leading eventually to its death. …
Experience and Advantages in Examining History as a School Subject
The May, 2006 unveiling of Al Gore’s, An Inconvenient Truth, caused an explosive interest in global warming. In January, 2007 the documentary was ranked the third highest grossing documentary and in February, 2007 the film won an Oscar (Hogue, 2007). The United Nations International Panel on Climate Change released a report stating that global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased significantly as a result of human activities since 1750. Currently exceeding pre-industrial values as determined from ice cores spanning many thousand years (Intergovernmental, 2007)….
Advances in Trans-Atlantic Counterterrorism
In his remarks opening a meeting of the House Subcommittee on Europe, Representative Elton Gallegly stated, “since September 11th, our partnership with Europe has become even more vital as we seek common strategies and solutions for the plague of global terrorism.” Although this could be said for many U.S. allies in its Global War on Terrorism, the Trans-Atlantic partnership is of particular importance. The similar and parallel foreign policies of the U.S. and many European countries in the past demonstrate that the commonality of combating terrorism is yet another area of cooperation for these two world powers. …
While anomalies and there occurrence is an inevitable phenomenal in life. Early childhood exposure plays a fundamental role in conceiving and curtailing these problems and alterations that are manifested deep and wide in our contemporary society. We face disagreements in all aspects of our lives; in social institutions, between friends or individuals, in our own homes and the neighbourhoods and many walks in our very existence. Richards, .H, K, (2005)
Conflict emanate from petty issues triggered by misconceptions, or where warring factions are perpetrating malicious if not mischievously ulterior motives. …