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Theories of Evolution

The creation-evolution controversy is everlasting verbal battle between the advocates of two theories. During those disputes many brilliant ideas appeared, and even more ideas were demolished. Theories of evolution and creation involved best scientists: theologists, biologists, medics, sociologists, geologists, paleontologists, nuclear physicists and cosmologists. Those theories even acquired a “foster child”, so called theistic evolution theory. In this essay I will discuss the origins and consequences of the creation-evolution controversy, emphasize main points of three theories and sum everything up with my personal opinion.

The theory of evolution (also called Metaphysical naturalism) probably originated in early Greek philosophy. In their definition of nature, Greeks distinguished “natural” from “artificial.” During the Renaissance, which reintroduced numerous treatises by Greek and Roman natural philosophers, and many of the ideas and concepts of naturalism were conceived. In this period, metaphysical naturalism finally acquired a distinct name, materialism. However, in the 20th century advances in physics as well as philosophy made the whole idea of materialism untenable. Matter was found to be a form of energy so reality was obviously not so “material” as it used to be thought of. As a final note to the history of metaphysical naturalism, Marxism, a variety of politicized naturalism, appeared. However, today most advocates of metaphysical naturalism reject both extremes and embrace the more moderate political ideals. While the adherents of evolutionary theory were disputing whose ideas is more “absolutely right” new theory – the theory of theistic evolution appeared.

Theistic evolution (or evolutionary creationism) is the general opinion that the theory of creation is compatible understanding about biological evolution. Theistic evolution supporters can be seen as the group, who try to avoid conflicts between religion and science, they are sure that teachings about creation and scientific theories of evolution need not be contradictory. This term was first used by Eugenie Scott to refer to the beliefs about creation and evolution holding the theological view that God creates through evolution. This view is accepted by major Christian churches, including Roman Catholicism and some Protestant denominations. The major criticism of theistic evolution by non-theistic evolutionists focuses on its essential belief in a supernatural creator, evolutionists state that theistic evolution is simply a belief in a God of the gaps, where anything that cannot currently be explained by science is attributed to God.

Intelligent design (also known as creationism) is the assertion that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. The term “intelligent design” came into use after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1987 case of Edwards v. Aguillard who claimed that the teaching of “creation science” alongside evolution was a violation of the Establishment Clause, which prohibits state aid to religion. The term “irreducible complexity” was introduced by Michael Behe, who defines it as “a single system which is composed of several well-matched interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning.”For that time their claims were declared to be unsupported, but in a long run it turns out that sympathizers of creation idea have the strongest arguments. Fine Tuning argument, for example, claims that the fundamental constants of physics and laws of nature appear so finely-tuned to permit life that only a supernatural engineer can explain it.

Attentive reader should have already noticed that I am the supporter of creation theory. In my personal view neither the naturalism theory nor the theory of theistic evolution can not (and never will) explain the existence of morality, emotions, conscience, love. Only God who has all aforementioned features could give them to us. In a conclusion I would like to mention the defiance that Dr. Kent Hovind bid to all advocates of evolution theory in far 1990. “I have a standing offer of $250,000 to anyone who can give any empirical evidence (scientific proof) for evolution. My $250,000 offer demonstrates that the hypothesis of evolution is nothing more than a religious belief.”No one still managed to get this reward. Maybe YOU want to be the first?;)

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