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Archive for the 'Citation Styles' Category

Turabian Format Papers

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February 25, 2008

Those paper writers and essay writers who want to know about the Turabian format papers, must know first of all how the in-text citation is given in Turabian format papers because in-text citation is the most important part of assignments and courseworks such as essays, case studies, term papers, research papers, dissertations, thesis, reviews, reports and other educational writings that are assigned to students by the teachers, instructors, lecturers and professors.

Without proper in-text citation and references, your academic papers and essays that you submit to your teachers will be called plagiarized and your teachers will consider you guilty of academic dishonesty as you will be using other authors’ writings without acknowledging them. For giving appropriate in-text citation, you should follow the standard methods of in-text citation.

Chicago Format Papers

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February 22, 2008

University teachers or professors usually give assignments or courseworks that should be done by following certain standard formats. All the standard writing formats are similar in some aspects and consist of some slight differences due to which they are categorized as different formatting styles. Out of these standard formats, Chicago format is one that is used more or less for academic writing of papers, essays, term papers, research papers, dissertations, thesis and other academic tasks.

If you are not aware of the Chicago format of paper writing, follow the instructions below to write Chicago format papers:
1. For Chicago format papers, always use 1 inch margins on each side of the paper on which you are typing.

MLA Format Papers

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January 3, 2008

MLA (Modern Language Association) stylepapers make sure that they cite adequately sources in fields as the liberal arts, humanities and literature. Similarly, to APA format, MLA format is associated with the technical requirements of double spacing and one-inch margin on all sides of the paper. According to the in-text citation rule, the author’s last name and the page number follow the used idea of the source. Yet the students need to be aware of the fact that sometimes citations are not needed, especially when it comes to refer to common knowledge.

The reference list in MLA style papers is called Works Cited Page. The sources need to be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name. In the process of arranging the references in MLA format papers, the students have to obtain the most necessary information, such as author, date and year of publication, title, etc. The students have to capitalize the titles of articles and books, but they do not have to capitalize short prepositions and conjunctions. Parenthetical citations within the text of the paper are must in order to demonstrate a relevant academic paper, written due to all the specific requirements of MLA format or MLA citation style. It is important to cite correctly because failing to do so is associated with the negative practice of plagiarism. Undoubtedly, similar thoughts come to mind in cases of paraphrasing. For instance, the students might discuss an idea that is not their own even if they consider they paraphrase it appropriately.

When writing papers, whether in APA or in MLA format, the students need to be attentive about the basic rules and requirements in order to avoid misinterpretation, confusion and plagiarism. Since MLA format is mainly connected to areas as humanities and literature, such practices are unacceptable, especially in literature papers where creativity is valued significantly. Although they might seem similar, APA and MLA formats differ in the precised method of citing information, respectively author-date method in APA format and author-page method in MLA format. Likewise, they differ in the way of citing the used references, as the manner of arranging the available information is different. The students have to possess adequate knowledge of the specificity of the various academic formats so that they could be able to write relevant papers, corresponding to their level and the expected academic objectives to cover in the process of education.

APA Format Papers

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January 3, 2008

APA (American Psychological Association) is a specific format of citing sources in papers within the broad field of social sciences, including psychology. Formatting papers according to the mentioned style is necessary in an academic environment since the quality of the papers depends on the properly implemented and cited evidence in order to support adequately the stated thesis. The general APA guidelines include technical requirements about the design of the paper; it should be double-spaced with a margin of one inch on all sides. Likewise, the students need to insert a page header in the upper right corner of every page, consisting of a part of the title and the page number.

APA style papers contain four main sections, such as the Title Page, Abstract, Body and References. The Title Page has to contain a name of the student, a name of the academic institution and the title. The students have to center all this information in order to be clearly presented. Regarding the Abstract of APA format papers, they need to present a concise summary of the major points of the written essays. Moreover, this kind of format is important with its in-text citations, paying attention on the author-date method of citing the necessary information. The students must cite the last name of the author and the year of publication of the respective source.

There are also certain requirements in relation to the in-text citation capitalization and underlining. For instance, the students need to capitalize author names and proper nouns. Referring to the title of a source requires capitalizing of the words in the title if they are not longer than four lines. In the other case, when the titles are longer, as in books, literary collections, films, it is necessary to underline or italicize the titles. The students have to put quotation marks in the titles of shorter works as journal articles or song titles.

In APA style papers, there are two main types of citations: short and long. The short quotations require not only the last name of the author and the year of publication of the source but also the precised page number for the reference. It is essential to introduce the citation with a phrase that contains the name of the author. If the quotations are longer, which means more than 40 words, APA format requires putting them in freestanding blocks, as the quotation marks are omitted in this case. In addition, there is another method of citing information, summary or paraphrase. Paraphrasing definite ideas requires only identifying the name of the author and the year of publication in the in-text reference.

One of the most important parts in APA format essays, term papers or research papers in APA format is the References Page because it makes sure that all the evidence is properly cited throughout the essays and the information could be easily found due to the detailed references. The reference list needs to appear at the end of the paper. A basic rule for the technical design of the references of the paper is the so-called hanging indentation, which means that the students need to indent the entries in the reference list one-half inch from the left margin. There are subtle differences in relation to referencing the various types of sources, whether print, electronic, articles in periodicals or books. However, APA formatting style characterizes with preciseness and clearly presented information that cannot confuse the readers; on the contrary, it orientates them properly in the right direction of retrieving the information in the easiest possible way.

Academic Paper Citation Styles

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January 3, 2008

In writing any academic essay or paper the writer must usually refer to several articles or papers published by research scholars and academicians. The writer may make use of the opinions and views of these authors as such or he may choose to modify them in his own writing style. In any case citation of the work is important. By citation the writer acknowledges the source from which he derived a particular view point or opinion. This is to advise the readers that the writer has adopted the sentences or phrased from the respective works of different authors mentioned as citation in the completed paper.

The writer must use in-text essay citation when he has added a direct quote of a different author in the essay. The writer must also add in-text citation when he paraphrased an idea from another source. In-text citation is also required when some information is summarized from a single source.

There are several internationally accepted citation systems exist which are being used in the academic essays. One of the most commonly used citation style is the author-page system. The MLA system of citation is the most recognized system of citation. The Modern Language Association (MLA) has prescribed the standards of this style of citation. According to the MLA style of citation, the page number, and author’s name is to be included in a parenthesis. If the author’s name is referred in the essay it is enough the page number is included in the citation.

The MLA system is an in-text method of citing sources and includes just enough information to help the readers find the information in the works cited page

Work cited section is a part of the citation. The work cited section goes into a new page after each essay is completed. As a part of citation, the writer has to mention the phrase ‘Work Cited’ on the top of the page where it is appearing. Generally the work cited should include the name of the author, title of the article, name of the publication or journal, the year and city of publication of all the authors and their works referred in the essay.

The other citation styles are Harvard style of citation, APA (American Psychologists Association) and Chicago Styles. Essays based on legal subjects need a different form of citation and there are standards established for such citation.

The citations may cover, general hints or notes on some of the issues discussed in the essay. The citation may also cover the books, magazines, articles, research papers, speeches reported in newspapers, news items in the newspapers and also websites found in the internet. Different citation methods have been prescribed for citing these different sources in the essay. Citation is an important part of the essay. Unless a proper referencing in any of the recognized methods is done, the essay will be considered as plagiarized denoting that parts of the essay has been stolen from other peoples’ work without acknowledging the fact that such works have been used in the paper.

Usually the requirements for any essay or academic papers should mention which kind of citation need to be adopted for completing the essay or paper. It is important to follow the specific requirements in terms of the citation of the essay, term paper, research paper or dissertation.

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